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Scalable Partition Handling for Cloud-Native Architecture in Apache Spark 2.1

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Apache Spark 2.1 is just around the corner: the community is going through voting process for the release candidates. This blog post discusses one of the most important features in the upcoming release: scalable partition handling.

Spark SQL lets you query terabytes of data with a single job. Often times though, users only want to read a small subset of the total data, e.g. scanning the activity of users in San Francisco rather than the entire world. They do this by partitioning the data files of the table by commonly filtered fields such as date or country. Spark SQL then uses this partitioning information to “prune” or skip over files irrelevant to the user’s queries. However, in previous Spark versions the first read to a table can be slow, if the number of partitions is very large, since Spark must first discover which partitions exist.

In Spark 2.1, we drastically improve the initial latency of queries that touch a small fraction of table partitions. In some cases, queries that took tens of minutes on a fresh Spark cluster now execute in seconds. Our improvements cut down on table memory overheads, and make the SQL experience starting cold comparable to that on a “hot” cluster with table metadata fully cached in memory.

Spark 2.1 also unifies the partition management features of DataSource and Hive tables. This means both types of tables now support the same partition DDL operations, e.g. adding, deleting, and relocating specific partitions.

Table Management in Spark

To better understand why the latency issue existed, let us first explain how table management worked in previous versions of Spark. In these versions, Spark supports two types of tables in the catalog:

  1. DataSource tables are the preferred format for tables created in Spark. This type of table can be defined on the fly by saving a DataFrame to the filesystem, e.g. df.write.partitionBy("date").saveAsTable("my_metrics"), or via a CREATE TABLE statement, e.g. CREATE TABLE my_metrics USING parquet PARTITIONED BY date.In prior versions, Spark discovers DataSource table metadata from the filesystem and caches it in memory. This metadata includes the list of partitions and also file statistics within each partition. Once cached, table partitions could be pruned in memory very quickly to address incoming queries.
  2. For users coming from Apache Hive deployments, Spark SQL can also read catalog tables defined by Hive serdes. When possible, Spark transparently converts such Hive tables to DataSource format in order to take advantage of IO performance improvements in Spark SQL. Spark does this internally by reading the table and partition metadata from the Hive metastore and caching it in memory.

While this strategy provides optimal performance once table metadata is cached in memory, it also has two downsides: First, the initial query over the table is blocked until Spark loads all the table partitions’ metadata. For a large partitioned table, recursively scanning the filesystem to discover file metadata for the initial query can take many minutes, especially when data is stored in cloud storage such as S3. Second, all the metadata for a table needs to be materialized in-memory on the driver process and increases memory pressure.

We have seen this issue coming up a lot from our customers and other large-scale Spark users. While it is sometimes possible to avoid the initial query latency by reading files directly with other Spark APIs, we wanted table performance to scale without workarounds. For Spark 2.1, Databricks collaborated with VideoAmp to eliminate this overhead and unify management of DataSource and Hive format tables.

VideoAmp has been using Spark SQL from the inception of its data platform, starting with Spark 1.1. As a demand side platform in the real-time digital advertising marketplace, they receive and warehouse billions of events per day. VideoAmp now has tables with tens of thousands of partitions.

Michael Allman (VideoAmp) describes their involvement in this project:

Prior to Spark 2.1, fetching the metadata of our largest table took minutes and had to be redone every time a new partition was added. Shortly after the release of Spark 2.0, we began to prototype a new approach based on deferred partition metadata loading. At the same time, we approached the Spark developer community to sound out our ideas. We submitted one of our prototypes as a pull request to the Spark source repo, and began our collaboration to bring it to a production level of reliability and performance.

Performance Benchmark

Before diving into the technical details, first we showcase query latency improvements over one of our internal metrics tables, which has over 50,000 partitions (at Databricks, we believe in eating our own dog food). The table is partitioned by date and metric type, roughly as follows:

CREATE TABLE metricData (
    value BIGINT,
    dimensions struct<...>,
    date STRING,
    metric STRING)
USING parquet
OPTIONS (path 'dbfs:/mnt/path/to/data-root')
PARTITIONED BY (date, metric)
</...>

We use a small Databricks cluster with 8 workers, 32 cores, and 250GB of memory. We run a simple aggregation query over a day, a week, and a month’s worth of data, and evaluate the time to first result on a newly launched Spark cluster:

SELECT metric, avg(value)
FROM metricData
WHERE date >= "2016-11-01" AND date 
When scalable partition management is enabled in Spark 2.1, reading a day’s worth of data takes a little over 10 seconds. This time scales linearly with the number of partitions touched in the query. To understand what contributes to this time, we break it down between time spent during query planning and Spark job execution:

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